What is the role of genetic engineering in biologics production?

Biologics production, whether the ultimate agent in question is tissue-, cell-, or protein/molecular-based, hinges upon the ability of the researcher to modify the agent to his or her specifications. Today, with the advent of more accessible techniques such as CRISPR, the use of genetic engineering for this purpose is increasing in popularity. Genetic engineering techniques allow scientists to induce gain/loss of function in cells, shift cellular phenotypes, promote cell-cell interactions, drive paracrine activity, and induce the formation of 3D structures and tissues. Genetic engineering also allows researchers to modify and augment existing functionality in the cellular factories commonly used to produce biologic agents – with the goal of increasing productivity, throughput, and yield.