Are all immunotherapies cell-based?

No. Not all immunotherapies are cell-based. In fact, many of the immunotherapies in active clinical use are not cell-based. Consider the use of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of autoimmune disorders, or the use of vaccines; neither requires the transfer of cells to a patient.

However, an important distinction is that many immunotherapies are biologic agents. This means that they are produced by cellular systems in a controlled production setting. Cellular products can include live cells, but they more frequently include secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies.